## calculation

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### calculation

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### Calculation

A **calculation** is a deliberate mathematical process that transforms one or more inputs into one or more outputs or *results*. The term is used in a variety of senses, from the very definite arithmetical calculation of using an algorithm, to the vague heuristics of calculating a strategy in a competition, or calculating the chance of a successful relationship between two people.

For example, multiplying 7 by 6 is a simple algorithmic calculation. Extracting the square root or the cube root of a number using mathematical models is a more complex algorithmic calculation.

Statistical estimations of the likely election results from opinion polls also involve algorithmic calculations, but produces ranges of possibilities rather than exact answers.

To *calculate* means to determine mathematically in the case of a number or amount, or in the case of an abstract problem to deduce the answer using logic, reason or common sense.^{[1]} The English word derives from the Latin *calculus*, which originally meant a pebble (from Latin *calx*), for instance the small stones used as a counters on an abacus (Latin: *abacus*, Greek: ἄβαξ, romanized: *abax*). The abacus was an instrument used by Greeks and Romans for arithmetic calculations, preceding the slide-rule and the electronic calculator, and consisted of perforated pebbles sliding on iron bars.

Calculation is a prerequisite for computation.^{[citation needed]}

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